The ultimate Du’a for the last 10 nights of Ramadan

It was narrated from ‘Aishah رضي الله عنها that she said:
“O Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم , what do you think I should say in my supplication, if I come upon Laylatul-Qadr?” He said, Say:

أللهم إِنَّكَ عَفْوٌ تٌحِبٌّ العَفْوَ فَأَعْفَوْ عَنِّي

Allahumma innaka ‘afuwwun, tuhibbul-‘afwa, fa’fu ‘anni

(O Allah, You are Most Forgiving, and You love forgiveness; so forgive me)

[Sunän Ibn Majah 3850]

Ibn Al Jawzee رحمه الله stated, “By Allaah; if it were said to the inhabitants of the graves: ‘wish’ – they would indeed wish for a day from Ramadan.” [Tabsirah 2|75]

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم used to seclude himself (in the mosque) during the last ten nights of Ramadan. He would say, “Search for Lailat-ul-Qadr (Night of Decree) in the last ten nights of Ramadan.” (Agreed upon)

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Whosoever performs Qiyam during Lailat-ul-Qadr (Night of Decree), with Faith and being hopeful of Allah’s reward, will have his former sins forgiven.”

10 ways to develop love for Allah

Ibn Al Qayyim – rahimahullâh – says:

“The reasons which cause love (mahabbah) of Allâh to develop, are ten:

Firstly: Reciting the Qur‘ân, reflecting and understanding its meaning and its intent.

Secondly: Drawing closer to Allâh – the Most High – through optional deeds, after fulfilling the obligatory duties.

Thirdly: Being continuous in the dhikr (remembrance) of Allâh, with the tongue, the heart and the limbs – under all circumstances. The more constant the dhikr, the more mahabbahdevelops and intensifies.

Fourthly: Giving precedence to what Allâh loves over personal loves, when being overcome by desires.

Fifthly: Contemplating and deliberating over the Names and Attributes of Allâh.

Sixthly: Recognising and remembering the favours and bounties of Allâh – both the manifest and hidden.

Seventhly: To be humble and submissive before Allâh – and this is the greatest matter.

Eightly: To be in seclusion reciting the Qur‘ân, during that time in which Allâh descends to the lowest heaven (which is the last third of every night), finishing this recitation with seeking Allâh’s forgiveness and repenting to Him.

Ninthly: To sit in the gatherings of true and sincere lovers of Allâh, reaping the fruits of their speech, and not to speak except if there is benefit in it and that you know that such talk will increase you in goodness and that it will benefits others as well.

Tenthly: To stay clear of all those causes which distances the heart from Allâh – the Mighty and Majestic.

So these are the ten reasons which cause the person to develop true love for Allâh and to reach the rank of al-muhabbah, by which he reaches his Beloved.”

[Madârijus-Sâlikîn (3/17-18).]

Staying up late at night is from the calamities

Shaykh Abdur-Razzaaq al-Badr (may Allah preserve him) stated:

The matter of staying up late at night (especially in this time of ours) is considered to be from the magnificent calamities and the great tribulations. Also, it has for it many violations against many of the people. From the greatest of the violations that comes as a result of it in this time of ours is the wasting of Salaatul-Fajr (i.e. not praying it on time).

By Allah, this is physical calamity. When a person sleeps past this magnificent obligation, he has committed a magnificent crime against his day.

Shaykh Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy upon him) stated, “At the start of the day, the sun has the status of its youth. And at the last part of it, it has the status of it being in its older age and this is something that is known by way of experience.”

Whoever grows up as a youth upon something, grows old upon it. Therefore, that which the person is at the beginning of the day, holds to be true about him for the rest of the day. If it is upon vigor, then the rest of the day will be vigorous. If it is upon laziness, then the rest of the day is upon laziness.

– Sharh ash-Shamaa-il

Continue reading “Staying up late at night is from the calamities”

Salaat ul Tawbah – The Prayer of Repentance

Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “If a slave commits a sin, and then he performs ablution perfectly, and then he gets up to offer two Rak’ah (voluntary) prayer and asks forgiveness from Allah then Allah would forgive him.” Then he صلى الله عليه وسلم recited the following verse:

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً أَوْ ظَلَمُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ ذَكَرُوا اللَّهَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا لِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَنْ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَلَمْ يُصِرُّوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلُوا وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

And those who, when they have committed Fâhishah (illegal sexual intercourse) or wronged themselves with evil, remember Allâh and ask forgiveness for their sins; – and none can forgive sins but Allâh – and do not persist in what (wrong) they have done, while they know. [Surah aal Imran:135]

Shaykh Islam Ibn Taymiyyah رحمه الله said this prayer can be offered even at the forbidden times, because Tawbah (repentance) is obligatory immediately and it’s recommended till one offers two Rak’ah prayer. [Fatawa Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah]

MAWLID – Refuting the arguments of those who celebrate the Prophets birthday

Those who think that this bid’ah should be continued produce specious arguments which are flimsier than a spider’s web. These specious arguments may be dealt with as follows:

[First Doubt]  – Their claim that this is veneration of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):

The response to that is that the way to venerate him is to obey him, do as he commanded and avoid that which he forbade, and to love him; he is not to be venerated through innovations, myths and sins. Celebrating his birthday is of this blameworthy type because it is a sin. The people who venerated the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) the most were the Sahaabah (radiallaahu ‘anhum), as ‘Urwah ibn Mas’ood said to Quraysh:


O people, by Allaah I have visited kings. I went to Caesar, Chosroes and the Negus, but by Allaah I never saw a king whose companions venerated him as much as the companions of Muhammad venerated Muhammad (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). By Allaah, whenever he spat, it never fell on the ground, it fell into into the hand of one his companions, then they wiped their faces and skins with it. If he instructed them to do something, they would hasten to do as he commanded. When he did wudoo’, they would almost fight over his water. When he spoke, they would lower their voices in his presence; and they did not stare at him out of respect for him.” (al-Bukhaari, 3/178, no. 2731, 2732; al-Fath, 5/388).

Yet despite this level of veneration, they never took the day of his birth as an ‘Eid (festival). If that had been prescribed in Islam, they would not have neglected to do that.

[Second Doubt] – Using as evidence the fact that many people in many countries do this.

The response to that is that evidence consists of that which is proven from the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and what is proven from the Prophet is that innovations are forbidden in general, and this is an innovation. What people do, if it goes against the evidence (daleel), does not prove anything, even if many of them do it.

“And if you obey most of those on the earth, they will mislead you far away from Allaah’s path.” [al-An’aam 6:116 – interpretation of the meaning]

Nevertheless, in every age, praise be to Allaah, there have always been those who denounce this bid’ah and state clearly that it is false. Those who persist in following it after the truth had been explained to them have no proof.

Among those who denounced the celebration of this occasion was Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, in Iqtidaa’ al-Siraat al-Mustaqeem; Imaam al-Shaatibi in al-‘I’tisaam; Ibn al-Haaj in al-Madkhil; Shaykh Taaj al-Deen ‘Ali ibn ‘Umar al-Lakhami who wrote an entire book denouncing it; Shaykh Muhammad Basheer al-Sahsawaani al-Hindi in his book Siyaanah al-Insaan; al-Sayyid Muhammad Rasheed Ridaa wrote a separate essay on this topic; Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem Aal al-Shaykh wrote a separate essay on it; Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz; and others who are still writing and denouncing this bid’ah every year in the pages of newspapers and magazines, at the time when this bid’ah is being done.

[Third Doubt] – They say that by celebrating the Mawlid they are keeping the memory of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) alive.

The answer to that is that the memory of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is constantly kept alive by the Muslim, such as when his name (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is mentioned in the adhaan and iqaamah and in khutbahs, and every time the Muslim recites the Shahaadatayn after doing wudoo’ and in the prayers, and every time he sends blessings upon the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in his prayers and when he is mentioned, and every time the Muslim does a waajib (obligatory) or mustahabb (recommended) action that was prescribed by the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). In all of these ways (the Muslim) remembers him and the reward equivalent to the reward of the one who does that action goes back to the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). Thus the Muslim constantly keeps the memory of the Messenger alive and has a connection with him night and day throughout his life through that which Allaah has prescribed, not only on the day of the Mawlid and things which are bid’ah and go against the Sunnah, for that puts one at a distance from the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and the Messenger will disown him because of that.

The Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has no need of this innovated celebration, because Allaah has already bestowed veneration and respect upon him, as He says: “and raised high your fame.” [al-Sharh 94:4]

For Allaah is not mentioned in the adhaan, iqaamah or khutbah, except that the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is mentioned after Him; this is sufficient veneration, love and renewal of his memory, and sufficient encouragement to follow him.

Allaah did not refer to the birth of the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in the Qur’aan, rather He referred to his Mission, and says (interpretation of the meaning):

Indeed, Allaah conferred a great favour on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves.” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:124]

He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves.” [al-Jumu’ah 64:2]

[Fourth Doubt] – They may say that the celebration of the Prophet’s birthday was introduced by a knowledgeable and just king who intended thereby to draw closer to Allaah.

Our response to that is that bid’ah is not acceptable, no matter who does it. A good intention does not justify a bad deed and even if a person died as a knowledgeable and righteous person, this does not mean that he was infallible.

[Fifth Doubt] – They say that celebrating the mawlid comes under the heading of bid’ah hasanah (“good innovation”) because it is based on giving thanks to Allaah for the Prophet!

Our response to that is that there is nothing good in innovation. The Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Whoever innovates anything in this matter of ours (i.e., Islam), that is not part of it will have it rejected.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, no. 2697; al-Fath, 5/355). And he said, “Every innovation is a going astray.” (Narrated by Ahmad, 4/126; al-Tirmidhi, no. 2676). The ruling on innovations is that they are all misguidance, but this specious argument suggests that not every bid’ah is a going astray, rather there are good innovations.

Al-Haafiz ibn Rajab said in Sharh al-Arba’een: “The words of the Prophet (salallaahu’alaihi wa sallam), ‘every innovation is a going astray‘ is a concise but comprehensive comment which includes everything; it is one of the most important principles of religion. It is like his words ‘Whoever innovates anything in this matter of ours (i.e., Islam), that is not part of it will have it rejected.‘ (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3/167, no. 2697; al-Fath, 5/355). Whoever innovates anything and attributes it to Islam when it has no basis in the religion, this is a going astray and is nothing to do with Islam, whether that has to do with matters of belief (‘aqeedah) or outward and inward words and deeds.” (Jaami’ al-‘Uloom wa’l-Hakam, p. 233)

These people have no proof that there is any such thing as a “good innovation” apart from the words of ‘Umar (radiallaahu ‘anhu) concerning Taraaweeh prayers, “What a good innovation this is.” (Saheeh al-Bukhaari, 2/252, no. 2010 mu’allaqan; al-Fath 4/294).

They also said that things were innovated which were not denounced by the salaf, such as compiling the Qur’aan into one volume and writing and compiling the hadeeth.

The response to that is that these matters had a basis in Islam, so they were not newly-invented.

‘Umar said: “What a good bid’ah” meaning innovation in the linguistic sense, not in the shar’i sense. Whatever has a basis in Islam, if it is described as an innovation, is an innovation in the linguistic sense, not in the shar’i sense, because innovation in the shar’i sense means that which has no basis in Islam. 

Compiling the Qur’aan into one book has a basis in Islam, because the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had commanded that the Qur’aan be written down, but it was scattered, so the Sahaabah compiled it in one volume so as so protect and preserve it.

The Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) led his companions in praying Taraaweeh for a while, then he stopped doing that, lest that become obligatory on them. The Sahaabah (radiallaahu ‘anhum) continued to pray it separately during the life of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and after his death, until ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radiallaahu ‘anhu) gathered them behind one imaam as they used to pray behind the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). This was not an innovation introduced into the religion.

Writing down the hadeeth also has a basis in Islam. The Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ordered that some ahaadeeth should be written down for some of his companions when they asked him for that. In general terms writing it down during his lifetime was not allowed, for fear that the Qur’aan might be mixed with things that were not part of it. When the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) died, this fear was no longer a factor, because the Qur’aan had been completed and arranged in order before he died. The Muslims compiled the Sunnah after that in order to preserve it and keep it from being lost. May Allaah reward them with good on behalf of Islam and the Muslims, because they preserved the Book of their Lord and the Sunnah of their Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) from being lost or being tampered with.

We may also say to them: why was this act of thanksgiving, as they call it, not done by the best generations, the Sahaabah, Taabi’een and followers of the Taabi’een, who loved the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) most and who were most keen to do good and give thanks? Are those who introduced the innovation of the Mawlid more rightly-guided than them? Do they give more thanks to Allaah? Definitely not!

[Sixth Doubt] – They may say that celebrating the birthday of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is indicative of their love for him; this is one way of showing that, and showing love of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is prescribed in Islam! 

The answer to that is that undoubtedly loving the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is obligatory for every Muslim; he should love him more than he loves himself, his child, his father and all the people – may my father and mother be sacrificed for him – but that does not mean that we should introduce innovations for doing so that have not been prescribed for us. Loving him dictates that we should obey him and follow him, for that is one of the greatest manifestations of love, as it is said:

“If your love is sincere then obey him; for the lover obeys the one whom he loves.”

Loving the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) implies keeping his Sunnah alive, adhering firmly to it, and avoiding words and deeds that go against it. Undoubtedly everything that goes against his Sunnah is a reprehensible innovation (bid’ah) and a manifest act of disobedience. That includes celebrating his birthday and other kinds of bid’ah. A good intention does not mean that it is permissible to introduce innovations into the religion. Islam is based on two things, purity of intention and following [the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)]. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 


Yes, but whoever submits his face (himself) to Allaah (i.e. follows Allaah’s religion of Islamic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin (a doer of good)  then his reward is with his Lord (Allaah), on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” [al-Baqarah 2:112]

Submitting one’s face to Allaah means being sincere towards Allaah, and doing good means following the Messenger and implementing the Sunnah.

[Seventh Doubt] – Another of their specious arguments is when they say that by celebrating the Mawlid and reading the biography of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) on this occasion, they are encouraging people to follow his example!

We say to them that reading the biography of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and following his example are required of the Muslim all the time, all year long and throughout his life. Singling out a specific day for that with no evidence for doing so is an innovation, and every innovation is a going astray.” (Narrated by Ahmad, 4/164; al-Tirmidhi, 2676). Bid’ah does not bear any fruit but evil and it leads to a person distancing himself from the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).

In conclusion, celebrating the birthday of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), whatever form it takes, is a reprehensible innovation. The Muslims should put a stop to this and other kinds of bid’ah, and occupy themselves with reviving and adhering to the Sunnah. They should not be deceived by those who promote and defend this bid’ah, for these types of people are more interested in keeping innovations alive than in reviving the Sunnah; they may not even care about the Sunnah at all. Whoever is like this, it is not permissible to imitate him or follow his example, even if the majority of people are like this. Rather we should follow the example of those who follow the path of the Sunnah, among the righteous salaf and their followers, even if they are few. Truth is not measured by the men who speak it, rather men are measured by the truth. 

The Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Whoever among you lives (for a long time) will see many differences. I urge you to follow my Sunnah and the way of the rightly-guided khaleefahs who come after me. Hold on to it firmly. Beware of newly-invented matters, for every innovation is a going astray.” (Narrated by Ahmad, 4/126; al-Tirmidhi no. 2676). So the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) explained to us in this hadeeth what we should do when there are differences of opinion, just as he explained that everything that goes against his Sunnah, be it words or deeds, is a bid’ah, and every bid’ah is a going astray.

If we see that there is no basis for celebrating the birthday of the Prophet, whether in the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) or in the way of the rightly-guided khaleefahs, then it is one of the newly-invented matters, one of the bid’ahs which lead people astray. This principle is what is implied by this hadeeth and is what is indicated by the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allaah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.” [al-Nisaa’ 4:59]

Referring to Allaah means referring to His Book, and referring to the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) means referring to his Sunnah after he has passed away. The Qur’aan and Sunnah are the reference point in cases of dispute. Where in the Qur’aan or Sunnah does it indicate that it is prescribed in Islam to celebrate the Prophet’s birthday? Whoever does that or thinks that it is good must repent to Allaah from this and from other kinds of bid’ah. This is the attitude of the Muslim who is seeking the truth. But whoever is too stubborn and arrogant after proof has been established, then his reckoning will be with his Lord.

We ask Allaah to help us adhere to His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) until the Day when we will meet Him. May Allaah grant blessings and peace to our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.   


Source: Huqooq al-Nabi (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) bayna al-Ijlaal wa’l-Ikhlaal, p. 139.

Shaykh Dr. Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan, Member of the Committee of Senior Scholars, Saudi Arabia.

Q&A: Discovering Najasah on Clothes after Salah

Question: A man offered Salah (Prayer), and later found Najasah (ritual impurity) on his clothes. Should he repeat Salah? It is to be noted that this took place five months ago.

Answer: If this man only knew about the Najasah after the end of Salah, his Salah is valid. When the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was told by Jibril (Gabriel) during Salah that his shoes had filth on them, he took them off, but did not repeat Salah.

If he knew about it before the Salah, but then forgot and remembered just after the Salah, there is no harm on him, according to Allah’s Saying:

“Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error.” [Surah Al-Baqarah, 2: 286]

It was authentically reported from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم that he said: “Allah has responded to that Du’a’ (supplication).” (Sahih Muslim)

[Majmoo ’al-Fataawa Ibn Baaz, Vol.: 10; pg. 397]

SIX CONDITIONS THAT UDHIYAH MUST MEET

There are six conditions that a sacrificial offering (udhiyah) must meet:

The First Condition: The sacrificial offering must be an animal from among cattle, which include camels and cows, or smaller livestock such as sheep and goats. This is based on Allaah’s statement:

وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ جَعَلْنَا مَنسَكًا لِّيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَىٰ مَا رَزَقَهُم مِّن بَهِيمَةِ الْأَنْعَامِ

“And for every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies that they may mention the Name of Allaah over the beasts of cattle that He has given them for food.” [Surah Al-Hajj 22:34]

The term “beasts of cattle” refers to camels, cows, sheep and goats. This definition is well known amongst the Arabs as stated by Al-Hasan, Qataadah, and others.

The Second Condition: It must have reached the required age that is in accordance with the religious standards such as six-months for sheep and one-year and up for everything else. The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) said: “Do not slaughter any animal except for one that is mature in age unless that is difficult for you, in which case you may slaughter a premature one from among sheep.”[Reported by Muslim] [1]

“Mature in age” is the age at which an animal is considered fully developed as well as any age beyond that, while “premature”is the age before that. With respect to a camel, a mature-aged one is one that has completed five years. With respect to a cow, a mature-aged one is one that has completed two years. A mature-aged sheep is that which is one-year old while a premature sheep is one that has competed half a year (up to one year).

So based on this, it is invalid to slaughter a camel, cow, and goat if it is under its respective “mature” age as well as a sheep if it is under six months of age.

The Third Condition: The animal must be free of any defect that would prevent its slaughter from being valid and acceptable.

These defects are of four types:

Clear defectiveness of the eye: This is when the animal’s eye becomes sunken or it sticks out to the point that it looks like a knob or it becomes a pale white indicating clearly that it is one-eyed.
Clear illness: This is when the animal exhibits signs of sickness, such as a fever that keeps it from grazing and causes a loss of appetite, or an obvious scabies infection that will spoil its meat and harm a person’s health (if he eats it), or a deep wound that threatens to affect its health and so on.
Clear limping: This is when the animal is unable to step safely (without hurting itself) when walking.
Emaciation that causes brain loss: This is based on what the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) said when he was asked about what types of animals one should avoid when sacrificing. He (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) gestured with his hand and said: “They are four: The lame animal that clearly walks crookedly; the one-eyed animal that clearly has a defect in the eye; the sick animal that clearly has signs of illness; and the emaciated animal that is (usually) not picked.” [2]
This hadeeth was reported by Maalik in al-Muwatta from Al-Baraa’ bin ‘Aazib. In another version of this report narrated by Al-Baraa’ found in the Sunan collections, he said: “The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) stood up amongst us and said: ‘Four types (of animals) are not permissible to use as sacrificial offerings…’ and he went on to mention them.” [3]

So therefore if these four defects are found in an animal, they prevent its slaughter and sacrifice from being valid. This goes as well for any other defect that is similar to or worse than these, which means that it is also not valid to sacrifice the following types of animals:

A blind animal that cannot see with both its eyes.
An animal suffering from nausea until it releases its load and its harm is removed.
An animal that has been assisted in giving birth if natural delivery is difficult until the threat of danger is removed.
An animal afflicted by something fatal such as choking, falling from a high place, and so on until the threat of danger is removed.
A crippled animal, which is an animal that cannot walk due to a physical disability.
An animal with one of its front legs or back legs broken.
So if these last defects are added to the four mentioned in the narrations, the types of animals that cannot be slaughtered become ten in total.

There are these six types plus the animals that suffer from the four previously mentioned defects.

The Fourth Condition: The sacrificial offering must be owned by the one slaughtering it or if not, he must have the right to slaughter it based on religious grounds or based on the approval of the animal’s owner. So if someone sacrifices an animal that does not belong to him, such as one that has been confiscated, stolen, or taken under false pretenses, such a sacrifice is not valid. This is since it is not permissible to draw near to Allaah by way of disobeying Him.

It is also valid if an orphan’s guardian sacrifices an animal for him using his (i.e. the orphan’s) money if this is what the orphan is accustomed to and if his heart will be broken if one is not sacrificed.[4] It is also permissible for a representative to perform the sacrifice using the funds of the person commissioning him with his permission.

The Fifth Condition: No other person’s right should be associated to the animal being slaughtered. So for example, it is not valid to sacrifice an animal that is being held as mortgage on a loan.

The Sixth Condition: The animal should be slaughtered in the specific time-frame legislated in the Religion, which is from the time after the ‘Eid Prayer on the Day of Sacrifice[5] until the sun sets on the last of the days of Tashreeq, which is the thirteenth day of Dhul-Hijjah. So therefore, the days in which the sacrifice is permitted are four: the day of ‘Eid, after prayer, and the three days after that (i.e. the days of Tashreeq).

So whoever performs the sacrifice before the end of the ‘Eid Prayer or after the sun sets on the thirteenth day (of Dhul-Hijjah), his sacrificial offering is not valid. This is based on what Imaam Al-Bukhaaree reported from Al-Baraa’ bin ‘Aazib who narrated that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) said: “Whoever sacrifices an animal before the (‘Eid) Prayer), it is just meat that he presents to his family and not a sacrificial offering at all.” [6]

Al-Bukhaaree also reported that Jundub bin Sufyaan Al-Bajlee narrated: “I witnessed the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) say: ‘Whoever slaughters an animal before praying (the ‘Eid Prayer) should slaughter another animal (as sacrifice) in its place.’” [7]

Nubaishah Al-Hadhlee narrated that Allaah’s Messenger said: “The days of Tashreeq are days of eating, drinking and remembrance of Allaah.” [Reported by Muslim] [8]

However, if one has a valid excuse for delaying the slaughter past the days of Tashreeq, such as if the animal runs away from him, due to negligence on his part, and he only finds it after the time-frame for slaughtering has passed. Another example is if a person entrusts someone to slaughter the animal for him but that person forgets to do it until the time has passed. In situations such as these, there is no sin in slaughtering after the prescribed time-frame since there is a valid reason for the delay.

This is also based on the analogy of it being similar to a person who sleeps passed the time of prayer or forgets to do it until its time passes, for he may pray it either when he wakes up or when he remembers

It is allowed to perform the sacrifice any time during the days of Tashreeq, whether day or night. However, slaughtering during the daytime is better, and doing it on the day of ‘Eid after the two khutbahs is better than that. Each day is better than the day that comes after it, in terms of performing the sacrifice, since that reflects one’s quickness and eagerness to carry out good deeds.


Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh Muslim: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (1963)

[2] Al-Muwatta: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (1)

[3] Sunan Abee Dawood: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (2802); Sunan at-Tirmidhee: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (1497); Sunan an-Nasaa’ee: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (4369); Sunan Ibn Maajah: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (3144); and Musnad Ahmad(4/300)

[4] Translator’s Note: Perhaps the orphan is accustomed to the sacrifice because this was his experience with his parents before he lost them. So if this tradition that he used to partake in with his family is not kept, it will cause his heart to be broken.

[5] Translator’s Note: The Day of Sacrifice, i.e. Yawm-un-Nahr, is the day of ‘Eid, while the days of Tashreeq are the three days that follow it.

[6] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (5545) and Saheeh Muslim: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (1961)

[7] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (5562) and Saheeh Muslim: Book of Sacrificial Offerings (1960)

[8] Saheeh Muslim: Book of Fasting (1141)

Source: Talkhees Ahkaam-ul-Udhiyah wadh-Dhakaat (pg. 12-16)

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